Flying by Ultralight

by Cliff Thompson, Member, EAA, USPPA

Background   Types       Photos      Videos      Developments Resources  

 

Background

The dream of flying has often remained just that. The high cost of purchasing a typical aircraft and maintaining it at an airport hangar, coupled with a considerable investment in pilot training, filing flight plans, logging flight time and achieving pilot certification, has often proved an insurmountable barrier to entry for many. In recent decades a new class of experimental aircraft has appeared at the lower end of the aircraft spectrum, generally described as "Ultralight".  Many of these aircraft have evolved into robust and reliable designs that have passed muster with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) who regulate ultralight use through Federal Aviation Regulation Part 103 – Ultralight Vehicles.

Flying by ultralight is basically self-regulated and one is not required by law to be a certified pilot.  Training for such ultralights as the Powerparaplider (PPG) and Trike described below is usually several hours of classes typically distributed over a week before attaining solo flight and certification (for passenger carrying a higher level of training and certification is required). Equipment costs for new gear typically weigh in ranging from the price of a motorcycle to a car, while trading in late-model used gear or working with kits can significantly reduce costs. A number of national organizations have sprung up that are especially helpful in providing fly-in events, vendor expos and resources such as organization-approved training schools and certified instructors  - the United States Powered Paragliding Association (USPPA), United States Ultralight Association (USUA) and Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA).

Recently the USPPA and EAA hosted 2 back-to-back Fly-In 2007 events in Florida, on April 12-15  the USPPA hosted the 2007 U.S. National Powered Paragliding Convention, sponsored by the EAA Ultralight Chapter 125 Power Paragators of Florida at  the Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation in Clewiston, Florida, while on April 17-23 the EAA, who annually host EAA AirVenture Oshkosh, “The World’s Greatest Aviation Celebration,” put on their other big show Sun 'n Fun Fly-In  at Lakeland, Florida. Both of these events offered Airfields where ultralight pilots continuously demonstrated flying their various aircraft, as well as Seminars covering every aspect of ultralight flying, and Vendor Expos providing complete resources for equipment and training. These 2 Fly-In shows offered attendees a comprehensive look at the types of ultralights. Coupled with the developments mentioned above, Fly-Ins like these continue to usher in a new era of personal, affordable flying “for the rest of us”.

Types of Ultralights

















PowerParaGlider (PPG) PPG Trike HangGlider Trike HangGlider Trike Amphibious HangGlider Trike Amphibious
Flying Boat










Ultralight Ultralight Amphibious Ultralight Seaplane Ultralight Helicopter Ultralight Helicopter Amphibious Ultralight Jet

PowerParaGlider (PPG): The most portable form of flying, often described as a “foot-launched inflatable wing” (or more colloquially the "flying chair") , the system primarily consists of a Paramotor, a backpack-mounted small aircraft engine with a back-facing seat, and a Parasail, a parachute of multiple layers separated by air cells which inflate the chute in flight. Some in-line 2-seater systems are available.  The entire system can typically be stored in a large duffel bag in the back of a car or in the two halves of a suitcase suitable for airport check-in luggage. USPPA President Jeff Goins, (by day a 747 pilot for Southwest Airlines), runs a comprehensive website  for all things PPG at FootFlyer, which offers a popular set of PPG Plans. Top speed is typically 30-40 mph. Flying is generally limited to the early morning and late afternoon until sunset, but not during the afternoon when gusty winds and thermals are maximally active.  Vendors currently popular include Adventure, Fly Castelluccio, Fly Products, Fresh Breeze and Paratoys,
PPG Trike: Typically a three wheeled framework that frees the PPG pilot from having to carry the Paramotor and be attached to the Parasail - instead the Paramotor and Parasail are attached to the back of the trike, while the trike also supports the seating. Passenger seating is commonly available in both in-line and tandem side-by-side modes, and some trikes offer 4 wheels for greater stability. Trike platforms range from bare-bones tubular frameworks offering maximum visibility, to varying degrees of enclosed fuselage covered by fiberglass cowling.  While rigid trikes are typically carried in the backs of trucks or towed on a trailer, some trikes of the bare-bones tubular variety are available as collapsible trikes, (a popular system being the Fly Products Flash Trike), so the whole system can still be carried in the back of a car. Vendors currently popular include American Flyer, Buckeye, Fly Castelluccio, Fly Products, Fresh Breeze, Para-Ski International, Paratoys, Phoenix Powered Parachutes and Powrachute.

HangGlider Trike: Often described as a “Sky Motorcycle”, utilizes a hang glider flex wing mounted at the top of a mast on the trike. Generally best stored in a hangar with the wing fully unfurled. Collapsible foldable wings (which support trailer towing) are commonly available, but current designs, for each unfurling/furling, require un-inserting/re-inserting the spars that hold the wing’s shape, a procedure that takes even experienced aviators typically an hour.  Top speed, using the largest engines (currently around 100 hp) is reaching 100 mph.  Vendors currently popular include Air Création, Airborne Australia, Airsports USA, Aquilair, Aviation Products, Cosmos (who Phase II was featured in the film "Fly Away Home"), DTA, Fly Castelluccio, Fly Products and P&M Aviation.
HangGlider Trike Amphibious: Use of the hang glider wing enables new possibilities such as water takeoff/landing, utilizing attachable pontoon floats. The most flexible designs support leaving the pontoons attached to enable land/water takeoff/landing as encountered; some of these designs offer for support for raising the tires out of the water.  Vendors currently popular include Airborne Australia, Airbridge, Cosmos, J&J Ultralights and Krucker Manufacturing
HangGlider Trike Amphibious Flying Boat:
Attaches a "Zodiac-like” inflatable rubber raft to the trike to support water takeoff/landing.  Some designs offer simple wheels kits attached to the raft to support land takeoff/landing. Vendors currently popular include Polaris and Wettrike.

Ultralight: Generally the earliest of the original designs for a personal flying machine, frequently on display at major air museums (most commonly a design from venerable manufacturer "Quicksilver"). Uses a fixed wing and tail rudder for the wing assembly. Some designs offer a split-able fold-back wing for trailer-able transport. Passenger seating is commonly available in both in-line and tandem side-by-side modes. Top speed, using the largest engines (currently around 100 hp) is reaching 100 mph. Often available in kit form, commonly assembled by organization (such as EAA) members locating a local chapter and assembling their kits together in a group supervised by an experienced kit builder (assembly time is 40-120 hours depending on experience).  Vendors currently popular include Earthstar, New Kolb Aircraft, Quicksilver and Weedhopper,
Ultralight Amphibious:
Attachable pontoon floats enable water takeoff/landing, utilizing . The most flexible designs support leaving the pontoons attached to enable land/water takeoff/landing as encountered; some of these designs offer for support for raising the tires out of the water.  Vendors currently popular include Aero Adventure.
Ultralight Seaplane:
Integrates a boat hull into the design of the fuselage to support water takeoff/landing. Designs frequently include retractable wheels for land operation..  Vendors currently popular include Aero Adventure and Airmax,

Ultralight Helicopter: Often available in kit form. Top speed is typically 70-80 mph.   Vendors currently popular include Air Command, Innovator and Vortech.
Ultralight Helicopter Amphibious:
Often available in kit form with added pontoon option. Top speed is typically 70-80 mph. Vendors currently popular include Airscooter and Innovator.
Ultralight Jet: Advances in jet engine design are reducing the size of the engine to fit sturdy ultralights built from carbon fiber composite materials.  An early pioneer is Burt Rutan, (developer of the "canard-wing” VariEze and Long-EZ composite ultralights), who outfitted a Long-EZ with a jet engine (later evolved into SpaceShipOne, recent X-Prize winner for first private manned spacecraft). Several small jets flew over the ultralight airfield at Sun 'n Fun Fly-In 2007. Currently ultralight jets are commonly created by doing an engine conversion on a suitable composite ultralight, a popular company offering these services being “EZ Jet”.

Costs:
PowerParaGlider (PPG):
N
ew system package deals which include training typically range from $6,000-10,000. Instructor-assisted searches for recommended and reliable late-model used equipment, often flight school training machines, can reduce costs by 1/3, while do-it-yourself systems built from plans (such as FootFlyer PPG Plans) have for some (sometimes in conjunction with used gear) dropped the price to $3000-$4000.
PPG Trikes: Adding a new collapsible trike to an existing PPG system typically range from $1,500-2,500, whereas rigid trikes range from $5,000-10,000. New system package deals which include training typically range from $12,000
for a bare-bones tubular framework to $25,000 or more for variously enclosed fiberglass cowling covered fuselage designs.
Hanglider Trikes and Ultralights (including Amphibious):
New system package deals which include training typically range from $10,000 for a bare-bones tubular framework to $30,000 or more for variously enclosed fiberglass cowling covered fuselage designs,  Lower cost ultralight kits are popular, particularly from Quicksilver kits.
Amphibious options: Adding a
new pontoon system to an existing ultralight, typically ranges from $2,000-8,000.
Helicopters: kits including training run from $20,000-30,000, while a "factory built and tested" option typically runs another $5,000.

 

Photos

An album of nearly 100 photos of various types of ultralights, taken at Sun 'n Fun Fly-In 2007 in the Light Plane/Ultralight, Helicopter/Rotorcraft and Seaplane Exhibit Space vendor areas.

The collection is organized by type of ultralight, introduced by title graphic slides.

For a given ultralight, the type, make, and/or model are generally listed in the photo filename which is used as a caption.
 

 

Videos

A collection of nearly a dozen video clips of various types of ultralights performing takeoffs, fly-bys and landings, taken at the Sun 'n Fun Fly-In 2007 Light Plane/Ultralight Airfield.
 

PowerParaGlider (PPG) Takeoff

PowerParaGlider (PPG) Takeoff Assisted

PowerParaGlider (PPG) Flyby

PowerParaGlider (PPG) Landing

PPG Trike Takeoff

PPG Trike Flyby

PPG Trike  Landing

Ultralight Amphibious Seaplane Takeoff

Hanglider Trike Takeoff

Hanglider Trike Flyby

Hanglider Trike Landing

Segway Human Transporter at Sun 'n Fun

 

Recent Developments

PowerParaGlider (PPG) Amphibious:

Trike Transport

More Passengers

Ambulance/Rescue

Multi-mode vehicles


Resources

Training

Directories

DVD / CD / Video / Magazine / Book

Organizations

Recreation

Vendors

2007 USPPA U.S. National Powered Paragliding Convention
Fly-In Vendor Exhibits

2007 EAA Sun 'n Fun
Fly-In Ultralight and Helicopter Vendor Exhibits


 



 

1w = Power Glider
2w = Southern Skies
3w = Ohio PPG
4w = Contraptioneering
5w = Adventure
6w = Macwet.com
7w = Usparagliding.com
8w = Paracruiser
9w = Paragliding Unlimited
10w = Debra Anderson
1e = Aerolight
2e = Aerolight
3e = South Florida PPG.Com
4e = USPPA.org
5e = Aerothrust
6e = Time2Fly.biz
7e = ParamotorCity
8e = Paramotorkits.com
9e = JB propellers
10e = Andy McAvin


Aero Sports Connection

UL-001

Aero Technical Institute

UL-020

Aero Thrust

UL-022

Aero-Door

UL-00G

Aerolight U.S.A.,Inc.

UL-008

Air Cam / Lockwood Aircraft Corp.

UL-019

Air Creation

UL-035

Airborne Australia

UL-017

Air-Tech, Inc.

UL-050

Aliseo Flying Boat

UL-007

Amsol

UL-011

Apollo North America

UL-039

CGS Aviation

UL-040, UL-041

Cutting Edge Airsports, Inc.

UL-00A

Earthstar/DCC

UL-031, UL-032

Ecosafe Environmental Solutions

UL-054

Fantasy Air U.S.A.

UL-013

FK-Lightplanes USA, LLC

UL-048

Flightstar-Hpower LTD

UL-037, UL-038


 

Fly Hard Trike Inc.

UL-016

Freedom Aero Credit

UL-002

GEMICO

UL-00H

Hirth Recreational Power Engin

UL-010

Indy Aircraft Ltd.

UL-036

Infinity Powered Parachutes

UL-004

JDT Minimax

UL-00K

Just Aircraft, LLC

UL-005, UL-006

Kuntzelman Electronics

UL-00U

LightSport & Ultralight Flying

UL-00C

Luscombe Silvaire Aircraft

UL-012

MiniMax Builders

UL-00M

M-Squared, Inc.

UL-028

P&M Aviation

UL-049

Powrachute Corporation

UL-021

Quicksilver MFG.

UL-046

Rainbow Aviation Services

UL-00D

Rainbow Sport Aviation, Inc.

UL-014

Remos Aircraft

UL-025, UL-026


 

Savage Aircraft Sales, LLC

UL-058

SeaEagle, Inc.

UL-009

SkyRanger & Lightning Aircraft

UL-052

Skysports, Inc.

UL-00J

South Mississippi Light AC

UL-030

Southern Aces Show Team

UL-068, UL-069

Speedwing Aircraft

UL-015

SportFlight International

UL-054

Storch Aircraft

UL-B

The Hackery

UL-044

The New Kolb Aircraft Co. LLC

UL-033, UL-034

U-FLY-IT Ultralights, Ltd.

UL-047

United States Ultralight Association

UL-00E

Warp Drive, Inc.

UL-018

Xenon USA

UL-045

Innovator Technologies

H-014

Vertical Aviation Technologies

H-006, H-008